105 years old, since 1910.
30 March 2017

2002 Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Agreement

BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA, THE KINGDOM OF LESOTHO, THE REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA, THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA AND THE KINGDOM OF SWAZILAND


PREAMBLE

THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA, THE KINGDOM OF LESOTHO, THE REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA, THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA AND THE KINGDOM OF SWAZILAND

[ Select your Option - refer below for part descriptions ]

[ Part 1] [ Part 2 ] [ Part 3 ] [ Part 4 ] [ Part 5 ] [ Part 6 ] [ Part 7 ] [ Part 8 ] [ Part 9 ]

[ Part 1 ] : Definitions, Objectives
[ Part 2 ] : Establishment, Legal Status, Membership, Admission of New Members
[ Part 3 ] : Institutions, Council of Ministries, Customs Union Commission, Secretariat, Tariff Board,
Technical Liaison Committees, Tribunal, National Bodies, General Consultations
[ Part 4 ] : Meetings, Quorum, Decisions
[ Part 5 ] : Trade Liberalisation, Free Movement of Domestic Products, Goods Imported from outside Common
Customs Area, Customs Duties on Imported Goods, Specific Excise and ad valorem Excise Duties,
Legislation Relating to Customs and Excise Duties, Customs Co-operation, Freedom of Transit,
Import and Export Prohibitions and Restrictions, Protection of Infant Industries, Rail & Road Transport,
Technical Barriers to Trade, Arrangements for Regulating the Marketing of Agricultural Products,
Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) Measures, Trade Relations with Third Parties
[ Part 6 ] : Common Pool Revenue, Management of the Common Revenue Pool
[ Part 7 ] : Revenue Sharing Formula, Revenue Forecasting, Trade Data Disputes, Timing of Payments
[ Part 8 ] : Industrial Development Policy, Agricultural Policy, Competition Policy, Unfair Trade Practices
[ Part 9 ] : Final Provisions, Annexes, Amendments, Signature, Ratification, Entry Into Force, Accession, Depository,
Withdrawal, Transitional Provisions, Termination of the 1969 SACU Agreement


RECOGNISING that the Customs Union Agreement concluded on 11 December 1969 no longer adequately caters for the needs of a customs union in the 21st century and should therefore be aligned with current developments in international trade relations;
BEARING IN MIND the decision of the Ministers responsible for Southern African Customs Union matters of 11 November 1994, mandating the Governments to re-negotiate the 1969 Southern African Customs Union Agreement;
AWARE that the implementation of the 1969 Agreement is hampered by a lack of common policies and common institutions;
RECOGNISING the importance of tariffs as instruments for the implementation of industrial development policy;
BEING desirous of determining and applying the same customs tariffs and trade regulations to goods imported from outside the Common Customs Area;
MINDFUL of the different levels of economic development of the Member States and the need for their integration into the global economy;
TAKING INTO ACCOUNT the results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations on global trade liberalization;
RECOGNISING the obligations of Member States in terms of existing regional trade arrangements and bilateral trade agreements;
BELIEVING that a dispute settlement mechanism will provide a mutually acceptable solution to problems that may rise between Member States;

Hereby agree as follows:

PART ONE

DEFINITIONS AND OBJECTIVES

Article 1
Definitions

In this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:
"additional duties" means duties imposed in terms of Article 26;
"Agreement" means this Agreement, establishing SACU, and includes Annex A and such annexes as referred to in Article 42;
"Botswana" means the area of the Republic of Botswana;
"Commission" means the Customs Union Commission established by Article 7;
"Common Customs Area" means the combined areas of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland;
"Common Revenue Pool" means the Pool referred to in Article 32;
"Council" means the Council of Ministers established by Article 7;
"customs duties" means customs duties as defined in the customs legislation in force in the respective Member States;
"excise duties" means excise duties as defined in the excise legislation in force in the respective Member States;
"financial year" means a period of 12 months commencing on the 1st of April;
"Lesotho" means the area of the Kingdom of Lesotho;
"Namibia" means the area of the Republic of Namibia;
"SACU" means the Southern African Customs Union established by Article 3;
"Secretariat" means the Secretariat of SACU established by Article 7;
"South Africa" means the area of the Republic of South Africa;
"Swaziland" means the area of the Kingdom of Swaziland;
"Tariff Board" means the SACU Tariff Board established by Article 7;
"Technical Liaison Committees" means Committees established by Article 7;
"Tribunal" means an adhoc Tribunal established by Article 7;
"WTO" means the World Trade Organisation.


Article 2
Objectives

The objectives of this Agreement are -
(a) to facilitate the cross-border movement of goods between the territories of the Member States;
(b) to create effective, transparent and democratic institutions which will ensure equitable trade benefits to Member States;
(c) to promote conditions of fair competition in the Common Customs Area;
(d) to substantially increase investment opportunities in the Common Customs Area;
(e) to enhance the economic development, diversification, industrialization and competitiveness of Member States;
(f) to promote the integration of Member States into the global economy through enhanced trade and investment;
(g) to facilitate the equitable sharing of revenue arising from customs, excise and additional duties levied by Member States; and
(h) to facilitate the development of common policies and strategies.

PART TWO

ESTABLISHMENT AND LEGAL STATUS
 
Article 3
Establishment of the Customs Union

1. There is established the Southern African Customs Union (hereinafter referred to as "SACU").
2. The Headquarters of SACU shall be in Windhoek in the Republic of Namibia.

Article 4
Legal Status

1. SACU shall be an international organization, and shall have legal personality with capacity and power to enter into contracts, acquire, own or dispose of movable or immovable property, and to sue and be sued.
2. SACU shall be accorded by each of the Member States such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the exercise of its functions.
3. The officials of the SACU Secretarial shall be similarly accorded by each of the Member States such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the independent exercise of their functions.
4. SACU shall conclude a headquarters agreement with the host Member State.

Article 5
Membership

The States mentioned in the Preamble to this Agreement shall, upon signature and ratification of this Agreement, become members of SACU.

Article 6
Admission of New Members

1. Any State not mentioned in the Preamble to this Agreement may become a member of SACU upon being admitted by the existing Member States and acceding to this Agreement.
2. The admission of any such State as a member of SACU shall be approved by a unanimous decision of the Council.
3. The Council shall determine the procedures and criteria for the admission of new members.

PART THREE

INSTITUTIONS

Article 7
Establishment of Institutions

The following institutions of SACU are hereby established -
(a) Council of Ministers;
(b) Customs Union Commission;
(c) Secretariat
(d) Tariff Board;
(e) Technical Liaison Committees; and
(f) ad hoc Tribunal.

Article 8
Council of Ministers

1. The Council shall consist of at least one Minister from each Member State and shall be the supreme decision making authority of SACU matters.
2. The Council shall be responsible for the overall policy direction and functioning of SACU institutions, including the formulation of policy mandates, procedures and guidelines for the SACU institutions.
3. The Council shall appoint an Executive Secretary of SACU
4. The Council shall appoint the members of the Tariff Board.
5. The Council shall approve the budgets of the Secretariat, the Tariff Board and the Tribunal.
6. The Council shall oversee the implementation of the policies of SACU.
7. The Council shall approve customs tariffs, rebates, refunds or drawbacks and trade related remedies.
8. The Council shall have the authority to create additional technical liaison committees and other additional institutions and to determine and alter their terms of reference.
9. The Council shall meet at least once in each quarter of a financial year, unless agreed otherwise.
10. The Chair of the Council shall be held in turn by each Member State for a period of twelve months in the order to be decided by the Council.

Article 9
Customs Union Commission

1. The Commission shall consist of senior officials at the level of Permanent Secretaries, Directors-General, Principal Secretaries or other officials of equivalent rank, from each Member State.
2. The Commission shall be responsible to and report to the Council.
3. The Commission shall be responsible for the implementation of this Agreement.
4. The Commission shall ensure the implementation of the decisions of the Council.
5. The Commission shall be responsible for overseeing the management of the Common Revenue Pool in accordance with the policy guidelines decided by the Council.
6. The Commission shall supervise the work of the Secretariat.
7. The Chairperson of the Commission shall be appointed by the Member State chairing the Council.
8. The Commission shall meet at least once in each quarter of a financil year or at the request of a Member State.

Article 10
Secretariat

1. The Secretariat shall be responsible for the day-to-day administration of SACU.
2. The Secretariat shall coordinate and monitor the implementation of all decisions of the Council and the Commission.
3. The Secretariat shall arrange meetings, disseminate information and keep minutes of meetings of SACU institutions.
4. The Secretariat shall assist in the harmonization of national policies and strategies of Member States in so far as they relate to SACU.
5. The Secretariat shall be headed by and Executive Secretary who shall be a citizen of a Member State.
6. The Secretariat shall have such other staff as may be determined by the Commission from time to time.
7. The Secretariat shall be responsible for keeping a record of all transactions into and out of the Common Revenue Pool.
8. The Secretariat shall coordinate and assist in the negotiation of trade agreements with third parties.
9. The Secretariat shall perform such other duties as may be assigned to it from time to time by the Council and the Commission.
10. The Secretariat shall be the depositary of all records of SACU.

Article 11
Tariff Board

1. The Tariff Board shall consist of experts drawn from Member States. The Tariff Board shall be an independent institution made up of full-time or part-time members or both.
2. The Tariff Board shall make recommendations to the Council on the level and changes of customs, anti-dumping, countervailing and safeguard duties on goods imported from outside the Common Customs Area, rebates, refunds or duty drawbacks based on the directives given to it by the Council as provided for in Article 8.
3. The terms of reference, policy mandates, procedures and regulations of the Tariff Board shall be determined by the Council in accordance with Article 8.

Article 12
Technical Liaison Committees

1. There shall be four Technical Liaison Committees to assist and advise the Commission in its work. These shall be the following:
(a) Agricultural Liaison Committee;
(b) Customs Technical Liaison Committee;
(c) Trade and Industry Liaison Committee; and
(d) Transport Liaison Committee.
2. The Council shall have the authority to determine and alter the terms of reference of the Committees mentioned in paragraph 1.

Article 13
Tribunal

1. Any dispute regarding the interpretation or application of this Agreement, or any dispute arising thereunder at the request of the Council, shall be settled by an ad hoc Tribunal.
2. The Tribunal shall be composed of three members, except as otherwise determined by the Council.
3. The Tribunal shall decide by majority vote and its decision shall be final and binding.
4. The Tribunal shall, at the request of the Council, consider any issue and furnish the Council with its recommendations.
5. In any matter referred to the Tribunal, the parties to the dispute shall choose the members of the Tribunal from amongst a pool of names, approved by the Council, and kept by the Secretariat.
6. Member States party to any dispute or difference shall attempt to settle such dispute or difference amicable before referring the matter to the Tribunal.
7. The Tribunal shall be assisted by the Secretariat in its work.
8. The Tribunal shall determine its own rules of procedure.

Article 14
National Bodies

1. Member States shall establish specialized, independent and dedicated National Bodies or designate institutions which shall be entrusted with receiving requests for tariff changes and other related SACU issues. The National Bodies will carry out preliminary investigations and recommend any tariff changes necessary to the Tariff Board.
2. The National Bodies will study, investigate and determine the impact of tariffs within respective Member States and periodically propose such changes as may be deemed necessary and make recommendations to the Commission through the Secretariat. The National Bodies shall adhere to similar procedures in all Member States.
3. SACU will assist Member States with the establishment of common procedures and technical capacity to ensure effective, efficient and transparent functioning of National Bodies.

Article 15
General Consultations

Any difference or dispute arising out of this Agreement, which does not directly affect the interests of all Member States, may form the subject of direct consultation between the affected parties with a view to finding a solution thereto. Such affected parties shall report the results of their consultations to the Commission before its next meeting.

PART FOUR
 
MEETINGS

Article 16
Quorum

Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, the quorum for all meetings of the institutions of SACU shall be all Member States.

Article 17
Decisions

Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, decisions of the institutions of SACU shall be made by consensus.

PART FIVE

TRADE LIBERALISATION

Article 18
Free Movement of Domestic Products

1. Goods grown, produced or manufactured in the Common Customs Area, on importation from the area of one Member State tot the area of another Member State, shall be free of customs duties and quantitative restrictions, except as provided elsewhere in this Agreement.
2. Nothwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 above, Member States shall have the right to impose restrictions on imports or exports in accordance with national laws and regulations for the protection of -
(a) health of humans, animals or plants;
(b) the environment;
(c) treasures of artistic, historic or archeological value;
(d) public morals;
(e) intellectual property rights;
(f) national security; and
(g) exhaustible natural resources.

Article 19
Goods Imported from outside the Common Customs Area

Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, a Member State shall not impose any duties on goods which were imported from outside the Common Customs Area on importation of such goods from the area of any other Member State.

Article 20
Customs Duties on Imported Goods

1. The Council shall, on recommendation of the Tariff Board, approve customs duties to be applied to goods imported into the Common Customs Area from outside that Area.
2. Member States shall apply identical rebates, refunds or drawbacks of customs duty on imported goods.
3. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article, a Member State may grant a rebate of the customs duties in respect of goods imported into its area where such rebates are -
(a) for the relief of the distress of persons in cases of famine and other national disasters;
(b) under a technical assistance agreement;
(c) in compliance with an obligation under any multilateral agreement to which such a Member State is a party; or
(d) for such other purposes as may be agreed upon by the Member States.

Article 21
Specific Excise and ad valorem Excise Duties and Specific Customs and ad valorem Customs Duties on Imported Goods of the Same Class or Kind

1. The Ministers responsible for Finance in all Member States shall meet and agree on the rates of specific excise and ad valorem excise duties and specific customs and ad valorem customs duties to be applied to goods grown, produced or manufactured in or imported into the Common customs Area.
2. Member States shall apply identical rebates, refunds or drawbacks of specific excise and ad valorem excise duties and of specific customs and ad valorem customs duties on imported goods in respect of such goods. Such rebates, refunds or drawbacks of specific excise and ad valorem excise duties and specific customs and ad valorem customs duties shall be determined by the Ministers responsible for Finance in the Member States through consultation.

Article 22
Legislation Relating to Customs and Excise Duties

Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement Member States shall apply similar legislation with regard to customs and excise duties.

Article 23
Customs Co-operation

1. Member States shall take appropriate measures, including arrangements regarding customs co-operation, to ensure that the provisions of this Agreement are effectively and harmoniously applied.
2. Member States shall take such measures as are necessary to facilitate the simplification and harmonization of trade documentation and procedures.

Article 24
Freedom of Transit

A Member State shall afford freedom of transit without discrimination to goods consigned to and from the areas of other Member States, provided that a Member State may impose such conditions upon such transit as it deems necessary to protect its legitimate interests in respect of goods of a kind of which the importation into its area is prohibited on grounds of public morals, public health or security, or as a precaution against animal or plant diseases, parasites and insects, or in pursuance of the provisions of a multilateral international agreement to which it is a party; and provided further that a Member State shall not be precluded from refusing transit, or from taking any measures deemed necessary by it in connection with such transit, for the purpose of protecting its security interests.

Article 25
Import and Export Prohibitions and Restrictions

1. Member States recognize the right of each Member State to prohibit or restrict the importation into or exportation from its area of any goods for economic, social, cultural or other reasons as may be agreed upon by the Council.
2. Except in so far as may be agreed upon between the Member States from time to time, the provisions of this Agreement shall not be deemed to suspend or supersede the provisions of any law within any part of the Common Customs Area which prohibits or restricts the importation or exportation of goods.
3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not be so construed as to permit the prohibition or restriction of the importation by any Member State into its area of goods grown, produced or manufactured in other areas of the Common Customs Area for the purpose of protecting its own industries producing such goods.
4. A Member State shall upon request by any other Member State take such steps as may be agreed upon between the Member States concerned (including action to make such steps legally enforceable within its area) to prevent the exportation or unrestricted exportation from its area to the area of such other Member State of such prohibited or restricted goods imported from outside the Common Customs Area or grown, produced or manufactured in its area or to prevent the exportation or unrestricted exportation from its area to a State outside the Common Customs Area of such prohibited or restricted goods imported from the area of such other Member State. The expression "prohibited or restricted goods" includes second hand goods imported from outside the Common Customs Area.
5. Member States shall co-operate in the application of import restrictions with a view to ensuring that the economic objectives of any import control legislation in any State in the Common Customs Area are attained.

Article 26
Protection of Infant Industries

1. The Government of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia or Swaziland may as a temporary measure levy additional duties on goods imported into its area to enable infant industries in its area to meet competition from other producers or manufacturers in the Common Customs Area, provided that such duties are levied equally on goods grown, produced or manufactured in other parts of the Common Customs Area and like products imported from outside that area, irrespective of whether the latter goods are imported directly or from the area of another Member State and subject to payment of the customs duties applicable to such goods on importation into the Common Customs Area.
2. Infant industry means an industry which has been established in the area of a Member State for not more than eight (8) years.
3. Protection afforded to an infant industry in terms of paragraph 1 shall be for a period of eight (8) years unless otherwise determined by the Council.
4. The Council may impose such further terms and conditions as it may deem appropriate.

Article 27
Rail and Road Transport

1. Member States undertake that the transit through their areas of goods imported from outside the Common Customs Area to or exported to a State outside the Common Customs Area from the areas of other Member States shall not be subject to transport rate discrimination by public authorities.
2. Each Member State shall ensure that the tariffs applicable within its area to the conveyance of goods by public owned transport to and from other areas of the Common Customs Area shall be no less favourable than the tariffs applicable to the carriage of similar goods within its area.
3. Each Member State undertakes to extend to the motor transport operators registered in the areas of the other Member States treatment no less favourable than that accorded to motor transport operators registered within its own area for the conveyance of goods or passengers for reward or in the course of any trade or business.

Article 28
Technical Barriers to Trade

1. Member States shall apply product standards and technical regulations in accordance with the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.
2. Member States shall strive to harmonize product standards and technical regulations within the Common Customs Area.

Article 29
Arrangements for Regulating the Marketing of Agricultural Products

1. Whenever a regulation for the marketing of an agricultural commodity is in operation in any part of the Common Customs Area, such a regulation shall be applied on a non-discriminatory basis to similar commodities produced in any other part of the Common customs Area and marketed in the area where the marketing regulation is in operation, and the Member States concerned, cognizant of the advantages derived from the effective operation of these regulations, shall co-operate in the application of such regulations on a basis to be mutually agreed upon.
2. Member States agree to consult from time to time on matters affecting the production and consumption of agricultural commodities and the improvement and extension of marketing arrangements for such commodities.
3. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, each Member State may impose marketing regulations for agricultural products within its borders, provided such marketing regulations shall not restrict the free trade of a agricultural products between the Member States, except as defined below:
(a) emergent agriculture and elated agro-industries as agreed upon by Member States; or
(b) any other purposes as agreed upon between Member States.
4. Each measure shall be subject to a negotiated sunset clause outlining its conditions and period.
5. Whenever possible, agricultural trade formalities and documents shall be simplified and harmonized, and all Member States shall work towards the harmonization of standards.

Article 30
Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) Measures

1. Subject to the provisions of Article 18, Member States recognize the importance of measures prescribing zoo-sanitary and phyto-sanitary requirements aimed at the prevention of the spread of animal and plant diseases, parasites and insects and agree to consult from time to time to achieve such aim I the Common Customs Area with due regard to the need to facilitate the flow of trade in products affected by such measures.
2. Member States rese4rve the right to apply SPS measures in accordance with their national SPS laws and international standards.

Article 31
Trade Relations with Third Parties

1. Member States may maintain preferential trade and other related arrangements existing at the time of entry into force of this Agreement.
2. Member States shall establish a common negotiating mechanism in accordance with the terms of reference to be determined by the Council in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 7 of Article 8 for the purpose of undertaking negotiations with third parties.
3. No Member State shall negotiate and enter into new preferential trade agreements with third parties or amend existing agreements without the consent of other Member States.
4. When goods imported by a Member State from outside the Common Customs Area under a preferential agreement are exported to another Member State, the normal import duty applicable to such goods when imported into the rest of the Common Customs Area will be charged. Any difference between the normal duty and the duty originally charged on these goods shall be paid into the Common Revenue Pool.

PART SIX

COMMON REVENUE POOL

Article 32
Pool Of Customs, Excise and Additional Duties

All customs, excise and additional duties collected in the Common Customs Area shall be paid into the Common Revenue Pool in accordance with Article 33 within three (3) months of the end of the quarter of a financial year.

Article 33
Management of the Common Revenue Pool

1. A Member State or SACU institution may be appointed by the Council to manage the Common Revenue Pool.
2. The appointed Member State or SACU institution shall specify the accounts into which all SACU customs, excise and additional duties shall be paid and from which all SACU payments shall be made.
3. All transactions into and out of the Common Revenue Pool shall be reported to the Secretariat, and shall be subjected to regular audits.
4. South Africa shall manage the Common Revenue Pool for a transitional period of two years from the entry into force of this Agreement.

PART SEVEN

REVENUE SHARING
 
Article 34
Revenue Sharing Formula

1. Member States agree that in determining their respective shares of the total customs, excise and additional duties collected in the Common Customs Area during any financial year, the share accruing to each Member State will be calculated from three distinct components as set out in the paragraphs below.
2. Member States agree that the budgeted cost of financing the Secretariat, the Tariff Board and the Tribunal for the related financial year will first be deducted proportionately from the gross amounts of customs, excise and additional duties collected, before distribution to Member States from the three components mentioned hereunder.

The Customs Component
3. (a) The customs component shall consist of the gross amount of customs duties and specific and ad valorem customs duties leviable and collected on goods imported into the Common Customs Area, and other duties collected on imported goods, less the deduction as provided for in paragraph 2, but shall not include any duties rebated or refunded under the provisions of any law relating to customs duties.
(b) Each Member State's share of the customs component shall be calculated from the value of goods imported from all other Member States in a specific year as a percentage of total intra-SACU imports in such year.
(c) The exact method and procedures for the calculation of each Member State's share of the customs component are specified in Annex A.

The Excise Component
4. (a) The excise component shall consist of the gross amount of excise duties, less the deduction as provided for in paragraph 2, leviable and collected on goods produced in the Common Customs Area, less the amount set aside to fund the development component, but shall not include any duties rebated or refunded under the provisions of any law relating to excise duties.
(b) Each Member State's share of the excise component shall be calculated from the value of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in a specific year as a percentage of total SACU GDP in such year.
(c) The exact method and procedures for the calculation of each Member State's share of the excise component are specified in Annex A.

The Development Component
5. (a) A development component shall be established and shall be funded from a fixed percentage of the excise component, less the deduction as provided for in paragraph 2.
(b) Each Member State shall receive a share of the development component and the distribution of this component shall be weighted in favour of the less developed Member States.
(c) The exact method and procedures for the calculation of each Member State's share of the development component are specified in Annex A.

Article 35
Revenue Forecasting

Each Member State shall annually submit its forecast for customs and excise revenue to the Secretariat for use in the calculation of revenue shares.

Article 36
Trade Data Disputes

Any dispute arising out of differences relating to trade data shall first be referred to customs and excise authorities of Member States for resolution. Should the customs authorities fail to resolve such a dispute or difference within thirty (30) days or such longer period as the Member States may agree then any Member State to the dispute shall refer the matter to the Council.

Article 37
Timing of Payments

Payments shall be made on the first day of each quarter of a financial year to all Member States from the Common Revenue Pool in accordance with Articles 33 and 34.

PART EIGHT

COMMON POLICIES

Article 38
Industrial Development Policy

1. Member States recognise the importance of balanced industrial development of the Common Customs Area as an important objective for economic development.
2. Pursuant to paragraph 1, Member States agree to develop common policies and strategies with respect to industrial development.

Article 39
Agricultural Policy

1. Member States recognize the importance of the agricultural sector to their economics.
2. Member States agree to co-operate on agricultural policies in order to ensure the co-ordinated development of the agricultural sector within the Common Customs Area.

Article 40
Competition Policy

1. Member States agree that there shall be competition policies in each Member State.
2. Member States shall co-operate with each other with respect to the enforcement of competition laws and regulations.

Article 41
Unfair Trade Practices

The Council shall, on the advice of the Commission, develop policies and instruments to address unfair trade practices between Member States. These policies and measures shall be annexed to this Agreement.

PART NINE

FINAL PROVISIONS
 
Article 42
Annexes

1. The Council may develop such annexes as may be necessary to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement.
2. All such annexes shall form an integral part of this Agreement.

Article 43
Amendments

Any Member State desirous of amending this Agreement shall put forward its proposal for such amendment, together with its submissions in motivation of the proposed amendment, to the Council for consideration and decision. An amendment of this Agreement shall be adopted by a decision of the Council.

Article 44
Signature

This Agreement shall be signed by all the States mentioned in the Preamble.

Article 45
Ratification

This Agreement shall be ratified by the signatory States in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures.

Article 46
Entry Into Force

This Agreement shall enter into force thirty (30) days after the deposit of the instruments of ratification by all the Member States.

Article 47
Accession

This Agreement shall, subject to Article 6, remain open for accession by any other State.

Article 48
Depositary

This Agreement and all instruments of ratification or accession shall be deposited with the Executive Secretary, who shall transmit certified copies thereof to all Member States.

Article 49
Withdrawal

If a Member State wishes to withdraw from this Agreement that Member State shall give notice thereof to all the other Member States. If after consultation the Member States fail to agree on the date and conditions of the withdrawal, this Agreement shall remain in force until twelve (12) months from the date of such notice and shall then cease to apply to the withdrawing Member State.

Article 50
Transitional Provisions

A commission, technical liaison committee or any other institution, obligation or arrangement of SACU which exists immediately before the entry into force of this Agreement shall, to the extent that it is not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement, continue to subsist, operate of bind Member States of SACU as if it were established or undertaken under this Agreement, until the Council determines otherwise. The Council of Ministers shall determine, on the basis of updated figures, how payments of adjustments under the 1969 SACU Agreement revenue sharing formula will be made.

Article 51
Termination of the 1969 SACU Agreement

The Customs Union Agreement between the Governments of Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland concluded on 11 December 1969, and acceded to by Namibia, shall terminate on entry into force of this Agreement, except as provided for in Article 50.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, WE, the Heads of State or Government or duly authorized representatives of Member States have signed this Agreement.
(This document was signed on 21 October 2002 in Gaborone, Botswana by the leaders of the
REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
KINGDOM OF SWAZILAND
REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA
KINGDOM OF LESOTHO)